Neo Reviews

NeoReviews current issue

  • Probiotics and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Premature Infants
    Intestinal dysbiosis precedes and is a likely causative factor in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and many cases of late-onset sepsis. Randomized controlled trials and observational cohort studies demonstrate decreased risk of NEC, sepsis, and death with the administration of probiotic microbes and decreased risk of NEC and sepsis with feeding of human milk. Animal studies suggest promising mechanisms by which probiotic microbes and human milk oligosaccharides alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota and may prevent disease in premature infants. Inclusion of parents in discussions of the risks and benefits of human milk and probiotics for premature infants is essential.

  • Gastrointestinal, Pancreatic, and Hepatic Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis in the Newborn
    Gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatic signs and symptoms represent the most common presentation of early disease among patients with cystic fibrosis and may be the initial indication of disease. Regardless of whether cystic fibrosis is diagnosed early by newborn screening or later by clinical course, the impact of gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatic manifestations on early life is nearly ubiquitous. Conditions strongly linked with cystic fibrosis, such as meconium ileus and pancreatic insufficiency, must be recognized and treated early to optimize both short- and long-term care. Similarly, less specific conditions such as reflux, poor weight gain, and cholestasis are frequently encountered in infants with cystic fibrosis. In this population, these conditions may present unique challenges in which early interventions may have significant influence on both short- and long-term morbidity and mortality outcomes.

  • Macronutrient Digestion and Absorption in the Preterm Infant
    The human fetus receives oral nutrition through swallowed amniotic fluid and this makes a significant nutritional contribution to the fetus. Postnatally, macronutrient absorption and digestion appear to function well in the preterm infant. Although pancreatic function is relatively poor, the newborn infant has several mechanisms to overcome this. These include a range of digestive enzymes in human milk, novel digestive enzymes involved in fat and protein digestion that do not appear to be present in the older child or adult, and the presence of a Bifidobacterium-rich colonic microbiome that may “scavenge” unabsorbed macronutrients and make them available to the infant.