Journals

Pediatrics

Pediatrics

PEDIATRICS current issue

  • An Electronic Referral and Social Work Protocol to Improve Access to Mental Health Services
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
    The prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in the United States is a major public health concern. However, the uptake of mental health treatment is low. Integrating behavioral health into primary care is 1 research-informed strategy to increase engagement in treatment. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of integrated behavioral health in a pediatric primary care setting are not well delineated.
    METHODS:
    We examined the effectiveness of 2 mental health quality improvement strategies: an electronic referral and a social work follow-up protocol. We analyzed the following measures: uptake rate of first mental health appointments, overall use of mental health appointments, and first and overall mental health appointment show rate.
    RESULTS:
    Overall use rate improved after implementation of electronic referral, with 13 consecutive points above the median. First appointment show rates improved with a special cause run occurring after adding social work students to the mental health quality improvement team. First appointment show rate improved from a monthly average of 51% (November 2014 to March 2016) to 78% (April 2016 to December 2016). Use rate improved initially with increased efforts in assisting patients with scheduling; show rate improved more slowly after an emphasis on scheduling patients exhibiting treatment readiness.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Findings suggest that a number of facilitators can increase the effective use of mental health services in an integrated adolescent clinical setting. These include an electronic referral through a shared electronic health record, multidisciplinary collaboration, and care management by social workers equipped with a variety of clinical and care coordination skills.


  • A 17-Year-Old Girl With Weight Loss and Elevated Inflammatory Markers
    A 17-year-old girl presented to her primary care physician with a history of unintentional weight loss and vague sensory symptoms, including tingling of her lower extremities. She had a nonrevealing neurology workup and a largely normal rheumatology workup apart from mild elevation in her inflammatory markers. She also had a nonfocal examination apart from a posterior cervical lymph node (2 x 1 cm). Given that she was well appearing, with a nonfocal examination and only mild laboratory abnormalities, she was told to follow-up with rheumatology in 3 months. Around that time, she re-presented to her medical home for a well-child visit, during which she was noted to have continued weight loss, now amounting to 17 lb in 1 year, and marked further elevation in her inflammatory markers. Her laboratory results were also significant for a profound microcytic anemia requiring inpatient admission for blood transfusion. During her admission, she was seen by the rheumatology, gastroenterology, and oncology subspecialty teams. Despite imaging studies and extensive laboratory workup, there was no unifying diagnosis at the time of her hospital discharge. Ultimately, an outpatient imaging study revealed the etiology.


  • A Tool to Identify Adolescents at Risk of Cigarette Smoking Initiation
    OBJECTIVES:
    To describe the development of a prognostic tool to identify adolescents at risk for transitioning from never to ever smoking in the next year.
    METHODS:
    Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens study, a longitudinal investigation of adolescents (1999 to present). A total of 1294 students initially age 12 to 13 years were recruited from seventh-grade classes in 10 high schools in Montreal. Self-report questionnaire data were collected every 3 months during the 10-month school year over 5 years (1999–2005) until participants completed high school (n = 20 cycles). Prognostic variables for inclusion in the multivariable analyses were selected from 58 candidate predictors describing sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits of family and friends, lifestyle factors, personality traits, and mental health. Cigarette smoking initiation was defined as taking even 1 puff on a cigarette for the first time, as measured in a 3-month recall of cigarette use completed in each cycle.
    RESULTS:
    The cumulative incidence of cigarette smoking initiation was 16.3%. Data were partitioned into a training set for model-building and a testing set to evaluate the performance of the model. The final model included 12 variables (age, 4 worry or stress-related items, 1 depression-related item, 2 self-esteem items, and 4 alcohol- or tobacco-related variables). The model yielded a c-statistic of 0.77 and had good calibration.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    This short prognostic tool, which can be incorporated into busy clinical practice, was used to accurately identify adolescents at risk for cigarette smoking initiation.


  • Activity Performance Curves of Individuals With Cerebral Palsy
    OBJECTIVES:
    Describe development curves of motor and daily activity performance in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP).
    METHODS:
    Participants with CP aged 1 to 20 years at baseline (n = 421) and Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V (27% of participants with intellectual disability [ID]) were longitudinally assessed up to a 13-year follow-up period. Motor and daily activity performance were assessed using the relevant subdomains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales survey. Nonlinear mixed effects analyses were used, estimating the limit (average maximal performance level) and the age by which individuals reached 90% of the limit (age90).
    RESULTS:
    Limits of motor performance decreased with each lower functional level. Age90 for motor performance was reached at ~6 to 8 years of age in children with GMFCS levels I to III, and at younger ages in those with lower functional levels. Limits of daily activity performance did not differ between individuals without ID with GMFCS levels I to III. The age90s of daily activities were reached between 11 and 14 (personal), 26 and 32 (domestic), and 22 and 26 years of age (community). Individuals with ID reached lower daily activity performance limits earlier.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Individuals with CP continue to develop motor performance after gross motor capacity limits are reached. For those without ID, daily activities continue to develop into their 20s. Individuals who are severely affected functionally have the least favorable development of motor performance, and those with ID have the least favorable development of daily activity performance.


  • Advance Care Planning and HIV Symptoms in Adolescence
    OBJECTIVES:
    To determine the effect of family-centered pediatric advance care planning (FACE pACP) on HIV-specific symptoms.
    METHODS:
    In this single-blinded, randomized controlled trial conducted at 6 US hospital-based HIV clinics, 105 adolescent-family dyads, randomly assigned from July 2011 to June 2014, received 3 weekly sessions in either the FACE pACP arm ([1] pediatric advance care planning survey, [2] Respecting Choices interview, and [3] 5 Wishes directive) or the control arm ([1] developmental history, [2] safety tips, and [3] nutrition and exercise tips). The General Health Assessment for Children measured patient-reported HIV-specific symptoms. Latent class analyses clustered individual patients based on symptom patterns. Path analysis examined the mediating role of dyadic treatment congruence with respect to the intervention effect on symptom patterns.
    RESULTS:
    Patients were a mean age of 17.8 years old, 54% male, and 93% African American. Latent class analysis identified 2 latent HIV-symptom classes at 12 months: higher symptoms and suffering (27%) and lower symptoms and suffering (73%). FACE pACP had a positive effect on dyadic treatment congruence (β = .65; 95% CI: 0.04 to 1.28), and higher treatment congruence had a negative effect on symptoms and suffering (β = –1.14; 95% CI: –2.55 to –0.24). Therefore, FACE pACP decreased the likelihood of symptoms and suffering through better dyadic treatment congruence (β = –.69; 95% CI: –2.14 to –0.006). Higher religiousness (β = 2.19; 95% CI: 0.22 to 4.70) predicted symptoms and suffering.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    FACE pACP increased and maintained agreement about goals of care longitudinally, which lowered adolescents’ physical symptoms and suffering, suggesting that early pACP is worthwhile.


  • Gaps in Well-Child Care Attendance Among Primary Care Clinics Serving Low-Income Families
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
    It is unclear which specific well-child visits (WCVs) are most frequently missed and whether age-specific patterns of attendance differ by race or insurance type.
    METHODS:
    We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children 0 to 6 years old between 2011 and 2016 within 2 health networks spanning 20 states. WCVs were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and 10th Revisions and Current Procedural Terminology codes. We calculated adherence to the 13 American Academy of Pediatrics–recommended WCVs from birth to age 6 years. To address data completeness, we made 2 adherence calculations after a child’s last recorded WCV: 1 in which we assumed all subsequent WCVs were attended outside the network and 1 in which we assumed none were.
    RESULTS:
    We included 152 418 children in our analysis. Most children were either publicly insured (77%) or uninsured (14%). The 2-, 4-, and 6-month visits were the most frequently attended (63% [assuming no outside care after the last recorded WCV] to 90% [assuming outside care]), whereas the 15- and 18-months visits (41%–75%) and 4-year visit (19%–49%) were the least frequently attended. Patients who were publicly insured and uninsured (versus privately insured) had higher odds of missing WCVs. Hispanic and Asian American (versus non-Hispanic white) patients had higher odds of attending WCVs.
    DISCUSSION
    The 15- and 18-month WCVs as well as the 4-year WCV are the least frequently attended WCVs. The former represent opportunities to identify developmental delays, and the latter represents an opportunity to assess school readiness.


  • Unilateral Withdrawal of Life-sustaining Therapy in a Severely Impaired Child
    An infant with complex congenital heart disease suffers a prolonged cardiac arrest with minutes of anoxia. He is left with severe brain damage and profound neurologic impairment. He no longer responds to caregivers. Much of the time, he cries and grimaces as if in pain. He has required increasing sedation to control these symptoms. His parents live hours from the hospital and seldom visit. When their infant’s situation is explained to them over the telephone, they request that doctors “do everything to keep him alive.” His bedside caregivers report high levels of moral and psychological distress and frequently discuss J.S.’s “suffering.” An ethics consultation is requested, asking whether it is permissible to withdraw life support despite the parents’ request that therapy continue.


  • Should Foreigners Get Costly Lifesaving Treatments in the United States?
    Many foreign parents bring their children to the United States for medical treatments that are unavailable in their own country. Often, however, parents cannot afford expensive treatments. Doctors and hospitals then face a dilemma. Is it ethically permissible to consider the patient’s citizenship and ability to pay? In this Ethics Rounds, we present a case in which a child from another country needs an expensive treatment. His parents cannot afford the treatment. He has come to a public hospital in the United States. We present responses from experts in pediatrics, bioethics, and health policy.


  • Medicaid Expenditures Among Children With Noncomplex Chronic Diseases
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
    Expenditures for children with noncomplex chronic diseases (NC-CDs) are related to disease chronicity and resource use. The degree to which specific conditions contribute to high health care expenditures among children with NC-CDs is unknown. We sought to describe patient characteristics, expenditures, and use patterns of children with NC-CDs with the lowest (≤80th percentile), moderate (81–95th percentile), high (96–99th percentile), and the highest (≥99th percentile) expenditures.
    METHODS:
    In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we used the 2014 Truven Medicaid MarketScan Database for claims from 11 states. We included continuously enrolled children (age


  • Shortened IV Antibiotic Course for Uncomplicated, Late-Onset Group B Streptococcal Bacteremia
    BACKGROUND:
    Guidelines recommend a prolonged course (10 days) of intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy for infants with uncomplicated, late-onset group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteremia. Our objective was to determine the frequency with which shorter IV antibiotic courses are used and to compare rates of GBS disease recurrence between prolonged and shortened IV antibiotic courses.
    METHODS:
    We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of infants aged 7 days to 4 months who were admitted to children’s hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database from 2000 to 2015 with GBS bacteremia. The exposure was shortened IV antibiotic therapy, defined as discharge from the index GBS visit after a length of stay of ≤8 days without a peripherally inserted central catheter charge. The primary outcome was readmission for GBS bacteremia, meningitis, or osteomyelitis in the first year of life. Outcomes were analyzed by using propensity-adjusted, inverse probability–weighted regression models.
    RESULTS:
    Of 775 infants who were diagnosed with uncomplicated, late-onset GBS bacteremia, 612 (79%) received a prolonged IV course of antibiotic therapy, and 163 (21%) received a shortened course. Rates of treatment with shortened IV courses varied by hospital (range: 0%–67%; SD: 20%). Three patients (1.8%) in the shortened IV duration group experienced GBS recurrence, compared with 14 patients (2.3%) in the prolonged IV duration group (adjusted absolute risk difference: –0.2%; 95% confidence interval: –3.0% to 2.5%).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Shortened IV antibiotic courses are prescribed among infants with uncomplicated, late-onset GBS bacteremia, with low rates of disease recurrence and treatment failure.



  • Hospital-to-Home Interventions, Use, and Satisfaction: A Meta-analysis
    CONTEXT:
    Hospital-to-home transitions are critical opportunities to promote patient safety and high-quality care. However, such transitions are often fraught with difficulties associated with increased health care use and poor patient satisfaction.
    OBJECTIVE:
    In this review, we determine which pediatric hospital discharge interventions affect subsequent health care use or parental satisfaction compared with usual care.
    DATA SOURCES:
    We searched 7 bibliographic databases and 5 pediatric journals.
    STUDY SELECTION:
    Inclusion criteria were: (1) available in English, (2) focused on children


  • Variation in Use by NICU Types in the United States
    BACKGROUND:
    Increased admissions of higher birth weight and less acutely ill infants to NICUs suggests that intensive care may be used inappropriately in these populations. We describe variation in use of NICU services by gestational age and NICU type.
    METHODS:
    Using the Vermont Oxford Network database of all NICU admissions, we assessed variation within predefined gestational age categories in the following proportions: admissions, initial NICU hospitalization days, high-acuity cases ≥34 weeks’ gestation, and short-stay cases ≥34 weeks’ gestation. High acuity was defined as follows: death, intubated assisted ventilation for ≥4 hours, early bacterial sepsis, major surgery requiring anesthesia, acute transport to another center, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy or a 5-minute Apgar score ≤3, or therapeutic hypothermia. Short stay was defined as an inborn infant staying 1 to 3 days with discharge from the hospital.
    RESULTS:
    From 2014 to 2016, 486 741 infants were hospitalized 9 657 508 days at 381 NICUs in the United States. The median proportions of admissions, initial hospitalized days, high-acuity cases, and short stays varied significantly by NICU types in almost all gestational age categories. Fifteen percent of the infants ≥34 weeks were high acuity, and 10% had short stays.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    There is substantial variation in use among NICUs. A campaign to focus neonatal care teams on using the NICU wisely that addresses the appropriate use of intensive care for newborn infants and accounts for local context and the needs of families is needed.


  • A System-Level Approach to Improve HIV Screening in an Urban Pediatric Primary Care Setting
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
    Less than 50% of youth living with HIV know their status. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommend universal HIV screening in adolescence. Pediatric primary care settings are still lacking in testing youth who are at risk for HIV. Our objective was to determine whether implementing rapid HIV screening improved HIV screening rates and result receipt in 13- to 25-year-old pediatric primary patients.
    METHODS:
    From March 2014 to June 2015, a 4-cycle plan-do-study-act quality improvement model was used. A total of 4433 patients aged 13 to 25 years were eligible for HIV screening on the basis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Logistic regression with random effects was used to estimate the odds of HIV screening and screening with a rapid test compared with each previous cycle. Statistical process control charts using standard interpretation rules assessed the effect of patients receiving rapid HIV screening.
    RESULTS:
    Baseline HIV screening rate was 29.6%; it increased to 82.7% in cycle 4. The odds of HIV screening increased 31% between cycle 1 and baseline (odds ratio 1.31 [95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.69]) to a 1272% increase between cycle 4 and baseline (odds ratio 12.72 [95% confidence interval: 10.45–15.48]), with most (90.4%) via rapid screening. Rapid screening yielded higher same-day result receipt . Five patients were identified with HIV and immediately linked to on-site care.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Rapid HIV screening and system-level modifications significantly increased screening rates and result receipt, revealing this to be an effective method to deliver HIV services to youth.


  • Antecedents of Obesity Among Children Born Extremely Preterm
    BACKGROUND:
    Childhood obesity is a pervasive public health problem with risk factors such as maternal prepregnancy BMI and rapid infant weight gain. Although catch-up weight gain promotes more favorable neurodevelopment among infants born preterm, it is not clear whether faster weight gain early in life, or other correlates of preterm birth, are associated with later obesity in this population.
    METHODS:
    We used prospective data from the multicenter, observational Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn Study. Among 1506 eligible individuals in the initial cohort, 1198 were eligible for follow-up at 10 years of age. We examined BMI in 871 children (58% of the cohort; 74% of survivors) and analyzed relationships between antecedents and overweight or obesity at 10 years of age. A time-oriented approach to multinomial multivariable regression enabled us to calculate odds of overweight and obesity associated with pre- and postnatal antecedents.
    RESULTS:
    Prepregnancy maternal BMI ≥25 and top quartile infant weight gain in the first year were associated with increased risk of both overweight and obesity at 10 years of age. Single marital status was a risk factor for later child obesity and exposure to tobacco smoke was a risk factor for later child overweight.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    The risk profiles for overweight and obesity at 10 years of age among children born extremely preterm appear to be similar to the risk profiles of overweight and obesity among children born at term.


  • Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Preterm Isolated Cerebellar Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review
    CONTEXT:
    The effect of neonatal cerebellar hemorrhage on neurodevelopmental outcome (NDO) in the absence of supratentorial injury is still largely unknown.
    OBJECTIVE:
    To evaluate the influence of isolated neonatal cerebellar hemorrhage on cognitive, motor, language, and behavioral NDOs and assess the effect of location and size on outcome.
    DATA SOURCES:
    Embase, Medline, and Scopus were searched from inception to September 30, 2017.
    STUDY SELECTION:
    Studies in which a diagnosis of isolated cerebellar hemorrhage was reported in preterm infants (


  • Pediatricians Participation in Quality Improvement at the Time of Enrollment in MOC
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
    Although national bodies have proclaimed the importance of incorporating quality improvement (QI) into the daily fabric of clinical care, the actual proportion of practicing pediatricians who participate in QI activities on an annual basis is unknown. Correspondingly little is known about pediatrician motivations for, attitudes about, and support received for QI participation.
    METHODS:
    Pediatric diplomates enrolling in the American Board of Pediatrics’ Maintenance of Certification program during calendar year 2016 were provided with the opportunity to complete a brief survey. A portion of the survey was focused on issues related to participation in QI programs.
    RESULTS:
    Survey responses were received from 8714 of the 11 890 diplomates who enrolled in Maintenance of Certification in 2016 (response rate: 73.3%). Overall, 86.6% of respondents reported participation in at least 1 QI project in the previous year. There was variation in previous-year participation in a QI project by practice affiliation categories, ranging from 79.9% for nonacademic generalists to 92.4% for academic specialists. The extrinsic requirement for QI to maintain board certification was the dominant motivator among all respondents (50.7%), followed by 2 intrinsic factors: identify gaps in practice and implement change (40.3%) and opportunity to collaborate with others (36.9%).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Although the results are encouraging, despite almost 2 decades of national attention to the quality of health care and efforts to embed continual QI in health care delivery activities, ~1 in 5 nonacademic pediatricians and 1 in 10 academic pediatricians did not report participating in any QI activities in the previous year.


  • Motivational Interviewing to Treat Adolescents With Obesity: A Meta-analysis
    CONTEXT:
    Successful treatment approaches are needed for obesity in adolescents. Motivational interviewing (MI), a counseling approach designed to enhance behavior change, shows promise in promoting healthy lifestyle changes.
    OBJECTIVE:
    Conduct a systematic review of MI for treating overweight and obesity in adolescents and meta-analysis of its effects on anthropometric and cardiometabolic outcomes.
    DATA SOURCES:
    We searched Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar from January 1997 to April 2018.
    STUDY SELECTION:
    Four authors reviewed titles, abstracts, and full-text articles.
    DATA EXTRACTION:
    Two authors abstracted data and assessed risk of bias and quality of evidence.
    RESULTS:
    Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria; 11 were included in the meta-analysis. There were nonsignificant effects on reducing BMI (mean difference [MD] –0.27; 95% confidence interval –0.98 to 0.44) and BMI percentile (MD –1.07; confidence interval –3.63 to 1.48) and no discernable effects on BMI z score, waist circumference, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, or fasting insulin. Optimal information size necessary for detecting statistically significant MDs was not met for any outcome. Qualitative synthesis suggests MI may improve health-related behaviors, especially when added to complementary interventions.
    LIMITATIONS:
    Small sample sizes, overall moderate risk of bias, and short follow-up periods.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    MI alone does not seem effective for treating overweight and obesity in adolescents, but sample size and study dose, delivery, and duration issues complicate interpretation of the results. Larger, longer duration studies may be needed to properly assess MI for weight management in adolescents.



  • Vaccination and Risk of Childhood IgA Vasculitis
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
    Immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV) might develop after vaccination. However, this potential relationship is essentially based on case reports, and robust pharmaco-epidemiologic data are scarce. We aimed to investigate the effect of vaccination on short-term risk of IgAV in children.
    METHODS:
    We enrolled children



  • Influenza Myocarditis Treated With Antithymocyte Globulin
    Influenza is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Myocarditis is a rare complication of the virus and can vary widely in severity. The published cases of influenza B myocarditis in children tend to be severe with a high mortality rate. Current standard treatment of viral myocarditis is supportive care, although immunomodulatory therapies, such as steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin, are often used. T cells have been implicated in causing significant myocyte damage in myocarditis by leading to the downstream production of antibodies against viral and myocyte antigens; this has created a theoretical basis for the use of antithymocyte globulin to target T cells in these patients. We present a case of acute fulminant influenza B myocarditis in a pediatric patient that required mechanical circulatory support and improved only after treatment with antithymocyte globulin.


  • Persistent Postconcussion Symptoms After Injury
    OBJECTIVES:
    We examined whether preinjury, demographic, and family factors influenced vulnerability to postconcussion symptoms (PCSs) persisting the year after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).
    METHODS:
    Children with mTBI (n = 119), complicated mild traumatic brain injury (cmTBI) (n = 110), or orthopedic injury (OI) (n = 118), recruited from emergency departments, were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Caregivers completed retrospective surveys to characterize preinjury demographic, child, and family characteristics. PCSs were assessed using a validated rating scale. With multivariable general linear models adjusted for preinjury symptoms, we examined predictors of PCSs 3, 6, and 12 months after injury in children ages 4 to 8, 9 to 12, and 13 to 15 years at injury. With logistic regression, we examined predictors of chronic PCSs 1 year after traumatic brain injury.
    RESULTS:
    Postinjury somatic, emotional, cognitive, and fatigue PCSs were similar in the mTBI and cmTBI groups and significantly elevated compared with the OI group. PCS trajectories varied with age and sex. Adolescents had elevated PCSs that improved; young children had lower initial symptoms and less change. Despite similar preinjury PCSs, girls had elevated symptoms across all time points compared with boys. PCS vulnerability factors included female sex, adolescence, preinjury mood problems, lower income, and family discord. Social capital was a protective factor. PCSs persisted in 25% to 31% of the traumatic brain injury group and 18% of the OI group at 1 year postinjury. The odds of chronic PCSs were almost twice as high in girls as in boys and were >4 times higher in young children with cmTBI than in those with mTBI.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    A significant minority of children with mTBI and OI have PCSs that persisted 1 year after injury.


  • Renal Amyloidosis in Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2: Successful Experience With Canakinumab
    Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a rare autoinflammatory disease that was firstly described in patients with early-onset strokes, livedo reticularis, and periodic fever resembling polyarteritis nodosa. In reported case series, researchers described highly variable manifestations, including autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, ichthyosiform rash, and arthritis, in patients with DADA2. A thirteen-year-old female patient who was born to consanguineous parents was admitted to our hospital with generalized edema and leg pain. A physical examination revealed splenomegaly and left knee arthritis. Nephrotic-range proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia were present, and a renal biopsy revealed amyloidosis. Despite the absence of periodic fever and livedo reticularis, our patient had suggestive features of DADA2, including low serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M levels, hepatosplenomegaly, and renal amyloidosis. We found a heterozygote Met694Val mutation in the Mediterranean fever gene and a novel homozygote Thr317Argfs*25 (c.950–950delCys) mutation in the cat eye chromosome region 1 gene. A functional analysis revealed absent plasma adenosine deaminase 2 activity. Canakinumab was administered because of unresponsive proteinuria despite 2 months of treatment with colchicine and methylprednisolone. Proteinuria improved after 7 doses of canakinumab. In conclusion, DADA2 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal amyloidosis, particularly in the absence of homozygote Mediterranean fever mutations. Although anti–tumor necrosis factor agents are widely offered in DADA2 treatment, we speculate that canakinumab may be an appropriate treatment of renal amyloidosis in DADA2.


  • Acetaminophen and Febrile Seizure Recurrences During the Same Fever Episode
    OBJECTIVES:
    To confirm the safety of using acetaminophen for febrile seizures (FSs) and to assess its efficacy in preventing FS recurrence during the same fever episode.
    METHODS:
    In this single-center, prospective, open, randomized controlled study, we included children and infants (age range: 6–60 months) with FSs who visited our hospital between May 1, 2015, and April 30, 2017. The effectiveness of acetaminophen was examined by comparing the recurrence rates of patients in whom rectal acetaminophen (10 mg/kg) was administered every 6 hours until 24 hours after the first convulsion (if the fever remained >38.0°C) to the rates of patients in whom no antipyretics were administered. No placebo was administered to controls. The primary outcome measure was FS recurrence during the same fever episode.
    RESULTS:
    We evaluated 423 patients; of these, 219 were in the rectal acetaminophen group, and 204 were in the no antipyretics group. In the univariate analysis, the FS recurrence rate was significantly lower in the rectal acetaminophen group (9.1%) than in the no antipyretics group (23.5%; P < .001). Among the variables in the final multiple logistic regression analysis, rectal acetaminophen use was the largest contributor to the prevention of FS recurrence during the same fever episode (odds ratio: 5.6; 95% confidence interval: 2.3–13.3).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Acetaminophen is a safe antipyretic against FSs and has the potential to prevent FS recurrence during the same fever episode.


  • Gestational Age, Health, and Educational Outcomes in Adolescents
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
    As outcomes for extremely premature infants improve, up-to-date, large-scale studies are needed to provide accurate, contemporary information for clinicians, families, and policy makers. We used nationwide New Zealand data to explore the impact of gestational age on health and educational outcomes through to adolescence.
    METHODS:
    We performed a retrospective cohort study of all births in New Zealand appearing in 2 independent national data sets at 23 weeks’ gestation or more. We report on 2 separate cohorts: cohort 1, born January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2015 (613 521 individuals), used to study survival and midterm health and educational outcomes; and cohort 2, born January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2000, and surviving to age 15 years (146 169 individuals), used to study high school educational outcomes. Outcomes described by gestational age include survival, hospitalization rates, national well-being assessment outcomes at age 4 years, rates of special education support needs in primary school, and national high school examination results.
    RESULTS:
    Ten-year survival increased with gestational age from 66% at 23 to 24 weeks to >99% at term. All outcomes measured were strongly related to gestational age. However, most extremely preterm children did not require special educational support and were able to sit for their national high school examinations.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Within a publicly funded health system, high-quality survival is achievable for most infants born at periviable gestations. Outcomes show improvement with gestational ages to term. Outcomes at early-term gestation are poorer than for children born at full term.


  • School-Based Exercise Programs and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-analysis
    CONTEXT:
    The effects of school-based physical activity (PA) programs on different cardiometabolic risk factors and the most appropriate features of PA programs to achieve maximum effectiveness are unclear.
    OBJECTIVE:
    To provide a comprehensive synthesis of the effectiveness of school-based PA interventions on cardiometabolic risk factors in children.
    DATA SOURCES:
    We identified studies from database inception to February 22, 2018.
    STUDY SELECTION:
    We selected studies that were focused on examining the effect of school-based PA interventions on cardiometabolic risk factors in children.
    DATA EXTRACTION:
    Random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled effect size (ES) for the included cardiometabolic risk factors (waist circumference [WC], triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and fasting insulin and glucose).
    RESULTS:
    Nineteen randomized controlled trials (which included 11 988 children aged 3–12 years) were included in the meta-analysis. School-based PA programs were associated with a significant small improvement in WC (ES = –0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: –0.22 to –0.07; P < .001), DBP (ES = –0.21; 95% CI: –0.42 to –0.01; P = .040), and fasting insulin (ES = –0.12; 95% CI: –0.20 to –0.04; P = .003).
    LIMITATIONS:
    Authors of few studies described the implementation conditions of their interventions in detail, and compliance rates were lacking in most studies. In addition, results by sex were provided in a small number of studies.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    School-based PA interventions improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in children, such as WC, DBP, and fasting insulin.


  • Experiences With Medical Exemptions After a Change in Vaccine Exemption Policy in California
    OBJECTIVES:
    In 2015, California passed Senate Bill 227 (SB277), eliminating nonmedical vaccine exemptions for school entry. Our objective for this study was to describe the experiences of health officers and immunization staff addressing medical exemption requests under SB277.
    METHODS:
    We conducted semistructured telephone interviews between August 2017 and September 2017 with health officers and immunization staff from local health jurisdictions in California. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for key themes.
    RESULTS:
    We conducted 34 interviews with 40 health officers and immunization staff representing 35 of the 61 local health jurisdictions in California. Four main themes emerged related to experiences with medical exemptions: (1) the role of stakeholders, (2) reviewing medical exemptions received by schools, (3) medical exemptions that were perceived as problematic, and (4) frustration and concern over medical exemptions. Generally, local health jurisdictions described a narrow role in providing support and technical assistance to schools. Only 5 jurisdictions actively tracked medical exemptions received by schools, with 1 jurisdiction facing a lawsuit as a result. Examples were provided of medical exemptions that listed family history of allergies and autoimmune diseases as contraindications for immunization and of physicians charging steep fees for medical exemptions. Participants also reported concerns about the increase in medical exemptions after the implementation of SB277.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Participants reported many challenges and concerns with medical exemptions under SB277. Without additional legal changes, including a standardized review of medical exemptions, some physicians may continue to write medical exemptions for vaccine-hesitant parents, potentially limiting the long-term impact of SB277.


  • Childhood Obesity and Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
    BACKGROUND:
    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is believed to be associated with childhood obesity, although the strength of the association is unknown.
    METHODS:
    We performed a cohort study using routine data from health screening examinations at primary school entry (5–6 years old) in Scotland, linked to a nationwide hospital admissions database. A subgroup had a further screening examination at primary school exit (11–12 years old).
    RESULTS:
    BMI was available for 597 017 children at 5 to 6 years old in school and 39 468 at 11 to 12 years old. There were 4.26 million child-years at risk for SCFE. Among children with obesity at 5 to 6 years old, 75% remained obese at 11 to 12 years old. There was a strong biological gradient between childhood BMI at 5 to 6 years old and SCFE, with the risk of disease increasing by a factor of 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–1.9) for each integer increase in BMI z score. The risk of SCFE was almost negligible among children with the lowest BMI. Those with severe obesity at 5 to 6 years old had 5.9 times greater risk of SCFE (95% CI 3.9–9.0) compared with those with a normal BMI; those with severe obesity at 11 to 12 years had 17.0 times the risk of SCFE (95% CI 5.9–49.0).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    High childhood BMI is strongly associated with SCFE. The magnitude of the association, temporal relationship, and dose response added to the plausible mechanism offer the strongest evidence available to support a causal association.


  • Income Disparities and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Adolescents
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
    Socioeconomic disparities in cardiovascular health among adults have been documented, but disparities during adolescence are less understood. In this study, we examined secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors and disparities among US adolescents.
    METHODS:
    We analyzed NHANES data from 1999 to 2014, including 11 557 (4854 fasting) participants aged 12 to 19 years. To examine trends in cardiovascular risk factors, adolescents were stratified into 3 groups on the basis of family poverty-income ratio: low income (poverty-income ratio,


  • The Intersection of Health and Education to Address School Readiness of All Children
    Children who enter kindergarten healthy and ready to learn are more likely to succeed academically. Children at the highest risk for not being ready for school live in poverty and/or with chronic health conditions. High-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs can be used to help kids be ready for school; however, the United States lacks a comprehensive ECE system, with only half of 3- and 4-year-olds being enrolled in preschool, lagging behind 28 high-income countries. As addressing social determinants of health gains prominence in pediatric training and practice, there is increasing interest in addressing ECE disparities. Unfortunately, evidence is lacking for clinically based, early educational interventions. New interventions are being developed asynchronously in pediatrics and education, often without knowledge of the evidence base in the other’s literature. In this State-of-the-Art Review, we synthesize the relevant work from the field of education (searchable through the Education Resources Information Center, also known as the “PubMed” of education), combining it with relevant literature in PubMed, to align the fields of pediatrics and education to promote this timely transdisciplinary work. First, we review the education literature to understand the current US achievement gap. Next, we provide an update on the impact of child health on school readiness and explore emerging solutions in education and pediatrics. Finally, we discuss next steps for future transdisciplinary work between the fields of education and pediatrics to improve the health and school readiness of young children.


  • Pediatric Emergency Department Visits for Homelessness After Shelter Eligibility Policy Change
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
    In 2012, Massachusetts changed its emergency shelter eligibility policy for homeless families. One new criterion to document homelessness was staying in a location “not meant for human habitation,” and the emergency department (ED) fulfilled this requirement. Our aim for this study is to analyze the frequency and costs of pediatric ED visits for homelessness before and after this policy.
    METHODS:
    This is a retrospective study of ED visits for homelessness at a children’s hospital from March 2010 to February 2016. A natural language processing tool was used to identify cases, which were manually reviewed for inclusion. We compared demographic and homelessness circumstance characteristics and conducted an interrupted time series analysis to compare ED visits by homeless children before and after the policy. We compared the change in ED visits for homelessness to the number of homeless children in Massachusetts. We analyzed payment data for each visit.
    RESULTS:
    There were 312 ED visits for homelessness; 95% (n = 297) of visits were after the policy. These visits increased 4.5 times after the policy (95% confidence interval: 1.33 to 15.23). Children seen after the policy were more likely to have no medical complaint (rate ratio: 3.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 9.01). Although the number of homeless children in Massachusetts increased 1.4 times over the study period, ED visits for homelessness increased 13-fold. Payments (average: $557 per visit) were >4 times what a night in a shelter would cost; 89% of payments were made through state-based insurance plans.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    A policy change to Massachusetts’ shelter eligibility was associated with increased pediatric ED visits for homelessness along with substantial health care costs.


  • Catatonia Associated With a SCN2A-Related Disorder in a 4-Year-Old Child
    Catatonia is a rare, underdiagnosed syndrome in children. We report the case of a 4-year-old child admitted for recent social withdrawal alternating with psychomotor excitement, verbigeration, and a loss of toilet readiness. He had a history of neonatal seizures, had been stabilized with vigabatrin, and was seizure free without treatment for several months. The pediatric and psychiatric examination revealed motor stereotypes, mannerism, bilateral mydriasis, and visual hallucinations. Laboratory and brain imaging explorations were initially negative. Catatonic symptoms, as measured with the Pediatric Catatonia Rating Scale, significantly decreased after introducing lorazepam, the first-line recommended treatment of this condition. On the basis of the neonatal seizure history, complementary genetic investigations were performed and revealed a mutation in the SCN2A gene, which encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.2. Catatonic symptoms progressively disappeared after reintroducing vigabatrin. At the syndromic level, catatonia in young children appears responsive to high-dose lorazepam and is well monitored by using the Pediatric Catatonia Rating Scale. This case reveals the need for wide-ranging explorations in early-onset catatonia because specific targeted treatments might be available.


  • Effectiveness of a Hand Hygiene Program at Child Care Centers: A Cluster Randomized Trial
    OBJECTIVES:
    Respiratory infections (RIs) are an important cause of morbidity and excessive antibiotic prescriptions in children attending day care centers (DCCs). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational and hand hygiene program in DCCs and homes in reducing RI incidence and antibiotic prescriptions in children.
    METHODS:
    A cluster, randomized, controlled, and open study of 911 children aged 0 to 3 years attending 24 DCCs in Almería (Spain) with an 8-month follow-up. Two intervention groups of DCC families performed educational and hand hygiene measures, 1 with soap and water (SWG; n = 274), another with hand sanitizer (HSG; n = 339), and the control group (CG; n = 298) followed usual hand-washing procedures. RI episode rates were compared through multilevel Poisson regression models. The percentage of days missed were compared with Poisson exact tests.
    RESULTS:
    There were 5211 RI episodes registered. Children in the HSG had less risk of RI episodes (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68–0.88) and antibiotic prescriptions (IRR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57–0.84) compared with the those in the CG. Children in the SWG had a higher risk of RI episodes (IRR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.06–1.39) and antibiotic prescriptions (IRR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.08–1.56) than those in the HSG. Pupils missed 5186 DCC days because of RIs, and the percentage of days absent was significantly lower in the HSG compared with the CG (P < .001) and the SWG (P < .001).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Hand hygiene programs that include hand sanitizer and educational measures for DCC staff, children, and parents, reduce absent days, RIs, and antibiotic prescriptions for these infections in children at DCCs.


  • Ultrasound Guidance for Pediatric Central Venous Catheterization: A Meta-analysis
    CONTEXT:
    Central venous catheterization is routinely required in patients who are critically ill, and it carries an associated morbidity. In pediatric patients, the procedures can be difficult and challenging, predominantly because of their anatomic characteristics.
    OBJECTIVE:
    To determine whether ultrasound-guided techniques are associated with a reduced incidence of failures and complications when compared with the anatomic landmark technique.
    DATA SOURCES:
    We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and Embase.
    STUDY SELECTION:
    We included randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized studies in which researchers compare ultrasound guidance with the anatomic landmark technique in children who underwent central venous catheterization.
    DATA EXTRACTION:
    Study characteristics, sample sizes, participant characteristics, settings, descriptions of the ultrasound technique, puncture sites, and outcomes were analyzed. Pooled analyses were performed by using random-effects models.
    RESULTS:
    A total of 23 studies (3995 procedures) were included. Meta-analysis revealed that ultrasound guidance significantly reduced the risk of cannulation failure (odds ratio = 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.43), with significant heterogeneity seen among the studies. Ultrasound guidance also significantly reduced the incidence of arterial punctures (odds ratio = 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.55), without significant heterogeneity seen among the studies. Similar results were observed for femoral and internal jugular veins.
    LIMITATIONS:
    Potential publication bias for cannulation failure and arterial puncture was detected among the studies. However, no publication bias was observed when analyzing only the subgroup of randomized clinical trials.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Ultrasound-guided techniques are associated with a reduced incidence of failures and inadvertent arterial punctures in pediatric central venous catheterization when compared with the anatomic landmark technique.




  • Pediatric Readiness in the Emergency Department
    This is a revision of the previous joint Policy Statement titled “Guidelines for Care of Children in the Emergency Department.” Children have unique physical and psychosocial needs that are heightened in the setting of serious or life-threatening emergencies. The majority of children who are ill and injured are brought to community hospital emergency departments (EDs) by virtue of proximity. It is therefore imperative that all EDs have the appropriate resources (medications, equipment, policies, and education) and capable staff to provide effective emergency care for children. In this Policy Statement, we outline the resources necessary for EDs to stand ready to care for children of all ages. These recommendations are consistent with the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (now called the National Academy of Medicine) in its report “The Future of Emergency Care in the US Health System.” Although resources within emergency and trauma care systems vary locally, regionally, and nationally, it is essential that ED staff, administrators, and medical directors seek to meet or exceed these recommendations to ensure that high-quality emergency care is available for all children. These updated recommendations are intended to serve as a resource for clinical and administrative leadership in EDs as they strive to improve their readiness for children of all ages.


  • Child Passenger Safety
    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats as long as possible; (2) forward-facing car safety seats from the time they outgrow rear-facing seats for most children through at least 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats from the time they outgrow forward-facing seats for most children through at least 8 years of age; and (4) lap and shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health supervision visit.


  • Child Passenger Safety
    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death to children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend the inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues affecting the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families.





  • Supporting the Health Care Transition From Adolescence to Adulthood in the Medical Home
    Risk and vulnerability encompass many dimensions of the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Transition from pediatric, parent-supervised health care to more independent, patient-centered adult health care is no exception. The tenets and algorithm of the original 2011 clinical report, “Supporting the Health Care Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood in the Medical Home,” are unchanged. This updated clinical report provides more practice-based quality improvement guidance on key elements of transition planning, transfer, and integration into adult care for all youth and young adults. It also includes new and updated sections on definition and guiding principles, the status of health care transition preparation among youth, barriers, outcome evidence, recommended health care transition processes and implementation strategies using quality improvement methods, special populations, education and training in pediatric onset conditions, and payment options. The clinical report also includes new recommendations pertaining to infrastructure, education and training, payment, and research.